It is already difficult to say who was the first to think of using 3D printing to create models of construction objects, but it is a fact that the technology will henceforth become an integral part of the construction industry.

Benefits of 3D Printed houses

There are several good reasons why 3d printed house is becoming more popular every day: the ability to facilitate the work of builders, designers, planners and a number of other workers, as well as reduce the time to build a turnkey house and financial costs. The latter is explained by the fact that the technology also helps to calculate the number of all elements in the house, such as windows, doors, stairs, ceilings, in order to calculate the most accurate volumes of building materials. So, you don’t have to throw away extra goods for which money has already been paid.

Many consumers and newcomers to 3D design are wondering when will 3d printed houses be available? Printed building objects are found all over the world, including in Russia. It remains for us to understand the concept of construction printing of volumetric houses, how much does a 3d printed house cost, and also what are the advantages and disadvantages of the technology.

Construction technology: how to get a 3d printed house?

Specialists in the USA, China and England tried to create a house built with 3d printer. The main problem that they all faced was the lack of the necessary materials. If we are talking about designing three-dimensional things, then in this case plastic is used. If we are talking about the creation of building objects, then it is not suitable because of its inability to withstand low temperatures and absorb sounds. These two parameters are especially important, both in the creation of residential and commercial buildings.

Not so long ago, a special cement was created to solve this problem. This material allows you to create objects of various designs and shapes: rounded, curved, angular, convex and others. It is this type of cement that allows you to create elements and parts of houses that are suitable for technical characteristics.

Answering the question of what are 3d printed houses made of, now we can say that this is a special mixture of cement designed for 3D printing. True, today it is supplemented with additional elements: cellulose, fiberglass, particles of construction waste, polymer fiber.

After the 3d printed houses material was created, it was possible to create the first 3D printed building object in history. For this it was necessary to go through the following steps:

  1. Creation of a 3D scan for 3D printing.
  2. Separation of the project on the computer by layers in cross section.
  3. Printing the model on the printer by layer-by-layer application of cement until the formation of a single object.
  4. Cooling the finished object to solidify it.

After the printed three-dimensional elements of the structure harden, they can be used in the construction industry to build houses. Building printers are able to create a variety of building components: arches, attics, load-bearing walls and beams, boxes. This approach helps to facilitate the construction of a house at times.

First house made by 3D printer: TOP-known three-dimensional houses in the world

Immediately after the special clay for creating three-dimensional elements of building objects was created and tested, the specialists got down to business. Some have failed, others have had little success. If we are talking about a full-fledged, completed work, then the first 3d printed house was created by the architectural bureau Mario Cucinella Architects together with the leader in the field of 3D printing – the Italian company Wasp.

For this, several printing devices and local soil were used at once. The erection took 200 hours. The project was named Tecla, which translates as “clay and technology.” The object is 100% environmentally friendly, since it was not necessary to import materials and no construction waste to create it. The area of ​​the first housing in history, created using a special printer, was 60 square meters. It is located in Italy, the city of Ravenna.

The first house built using 3D technology in Europe. It is located in the Netherlands. It was the first building project to include five houses from Saint-Gobain Weber Beamix, designed by Milestone. A married couple from Amsterdam settled in it. The living area is 94 square meters. In the process of its construction, 24 concrete structures were used.

The largest 3d printed house created by the Irkutsk company Apis Cor was included in the Guinness Book of Records. The area of ​​the building is 640 square meters and its height is 9.5 meters.

3D printer builds house: advantages and disadvantages of 3D houses

Before you find out how much is a 3d printed house to do business or place an order, it will be useful to study all the pros and cons of this technology. Among the advantages it is worth noting the following:

  • high speed of housing construction;
  • resistance to low temperatures and moisture;
  • endurance – the ability to constantly work without interruption;
  • versatility – you can create a variety of elements – from stairs and benches to load-bearing walls and towers;
  • multiple optimization of structural details during the development of a three-dimensional model;
  • ease of assembly at home;
  • saving labor and money.

Given the 3d printed house cost, many are wondering if they are worth that kind of money, if the technical characteristics of the materials do not actually differ from the standard ones we are used to? It’s all about the environment. It is absolute, as regards both the object itself and the process of its creation, since after the construction there is no garbage left.

If we talk about the shortcomings, then among them:

  • high cost of equipment – although this criterion is not such a minus, if we note the fact that the equipment is characterized by high production speed and quick payback;
  • you cannot create a roof, so in traditional dwellings you have to create a roof from classic building materials;
  • low popularity and demand in the domestic market.

Now it becomes clear what is a 3d printed house, what are its strengths and weaknesses.

3D printed house price: project cost

If we talk about the cost of buildings created using a 3D printer, then in this case we are talking more about the technology itself. Today it is expensive and exclusive. The average cost of one unit is $15000. These are lesser-known brands. If we take popular types of equipment, then they will cost more – from $30000 and more.

This is an innovative technique that is technologically sophisticated. Although you will have to spend no less on standard machines for building a house, but their payback will be lower. So, here’s another way to look: you can return the money spent on the construction of a 3D object after the delivery of 1-2 projects, which is equal in time from 90 to 120 days.

Features of materials for creating houses on a 3D printer

As already mentioned, the construction of 3D houses is carried out on the basis of special concrete. It would seem that this is an unpretentious material and there should not be any difficulties with its use. And yet they are and are associated with the consistency of raw materials. During its passage through the extruder, difficulties often arise if the concrete is not liquid enough. Its consistency should be medium so that it does not crack, and also applied in even layers.

It is important that the material dries quickly and fastens to keep its shape. If the process is carried out very quickly, then the layers that overlap each other may lose their chemical properties, which is why they simply do not have time to stick together to form a single figure.

If the cement sets very quickly with the work surface or with another layer of material, then there is a risk that the nozzle will clog and the printer will break.

To increase the strength of concrete, plasticizers are added to it. Due to these additives, the technical characteristics of the raw material are increased, namely its mobility and resistance to moisture.

And another important point: not the same concrete that is used in classical construction should be used, but innovative. To create it, take a special fine-grained mixture.

Types of construction 3D printers

There are several types of printing devices that are designed specifically for the construction industry and the construction of environmentally friendly objects using 3D printing technology. Consider the most popular and popular among them:

  1. Printers XYZ, or portal. Use this technique if the building object is small, compact and can be printed at a time. Also used for large houses. In this case, the equipment will be delivered to the workshop in order to create separate parts of the structure. There may be such an option when the printer is placed inside the object that is being built. This allows you to print interior walls and partitions.
  2. Delta. They will help to create interesting figures of complex configurations. They differ in the absence of binding to three-dimensional guides.
  3. Robots. These are robotic arms that have entered the industrial category. Connected to and controlled by a computer. They can be managed through manual control by a person remotely, which is also convenient.
  4. D-Shape. The material is not used in the form of a solution, but in a dry form. The raw materials are laid in layers, after which they are compacted and impregnated with a special substance to give the finished shape and the necessary characteristics.

Thanks to this innovative technology, it is possible to develop a three-dimensional housing project in advance in order to understand how the 3d printed house inside and outside will look like after construction. 


Have experience in writing for big hi-tech magazines. I love new technologies and I always want to be on the cutting edge. That’s why I write about them – to share my experience with other people who are interested in this stuff like me.

1 Reply to “3D Printed Houses”

  1. Hello Peter!
    My name is Draven. I want to ask you about best materials for 3d printed houses.
    If i decide to buy one of it and i planning to move in some place where weather is not so stable, for example at summer it will be warm, but at wintertime it will be cold a lot, which material for 3d house is perfect for this case?

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